Cartridge designation: 7.62 mm cartridge of 1943 sample, 7.62 x 39, 7.62mm Kalashnikov, 7.62mm M43. Elizarov N.M and Syomin B.V designed Russian and Soviet Army cartridges for military automatics in 1943. Initially, the cartridge had a 41mm case and a lead core projectile [flat base]. Development work was carried out on the Simonov Carbine [SKS], Kalashnikov Assault rifle [AK47}, light machinegun Degtyarov [RPD] and general machinegun, Kalashnikov [RPK, RPKS]. In 1946, the cartridge was modernised; the projectile was given a steel core, large radius ogival and a boat-tail. This cartridge was designated, cal. 7.62mm of 1943 sample. In this configuration it was adopted by the Soviet Army in 1949. The cartridge very quickly gained popularity especially in the Ak47 Assault Rifle which saw world-wide acceptance of the cartridge and weapon system. Armies of the former Warsaw Pac adopted the cartridge as well as countries such as, Egypt, China, Korean Democratic Republic, Cuba, Finland, Yugoslavia and a great number of developing counties. The cartridge exhibits exceptional killing power on all manner of game, however, it is best used on game up to small to medium sized deer and out to a range of 150 to 180 metres at that range, the knock-down area of the animal is not exceeded by the trajectory of the projectile. More experienced shooters have reported surprising results in excess of 250 metres however, this is not a recommend opening range. At distances over 120 metres and on heavier game, the projectile causes minor tissue damage and is therefore an excellent choice when a hunter is shooting for meat not a trophy. Pitch ratio is recommended as 1:9.